Accountability can be broadly defined as the obligation of those in power to take responsibility for their actions. Accountability requires that those being held to account explain their decisions and actions; it also recognises the right of others to enquire about those decisions and actions.
- Amendment (Legislative)
A change proposed to a motion or bill with the intention of improving it or providing an alternative.
- Annual Report
An Annual Report is a company's yearly report to stakeholders, documenting its activities and finances in the previous financial year.
- Appropriation Act
This is the law that gives the Government the authority to spend money for the activities outlined in the Estimates of Expenditure.
Any revenue that a (Government) Department collects in the ordinary course of business, which has been approved by Parliament to be used by the Department.
Backbenchers are MPs that are neither government ministers nor opposition Shadow spokespersons. They are so called because, in the House they sit in the rows of benches behind their parties' spokespersons who are known as frontbenchers.
A legislature that has two separate chambers. In Jamaica they are the Senate (Upper House) and the House of Representatives (Lower House). Generally, the two are quite distinct from each other. This bicameral system has a significant impact on the way Parliament works.
An infraction or violation of a law, obligation, policy, or standard.
- Budget Call
A Budget Call refers to instructions issued by the Minister of Finance to Ministries and departments for the submission of proposals for their budgets, corporate plans and operational plans in respect of the upcoming financial year.
The Cabinet consists of all Ministers who are appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister from among the members of the House of Representatives, and from the Senate. The Cabinet decides the Government's priorities and policies, determines the legislation that will be presented to Parliament, and raises and spends revenues.
- Capital Expenditure
The capital account includes expenses connected with the purchase and upkeep of goods such as machinery in factories, school buildings, offices and roads. These projects are expensive, but they in turn help, in the production of other goods and services. The capital account, therefore, plays an important part in the country’s economy, for as the stock of capital goods grows, production capacity increases. The capital account also includes income from Government owned profit-making enterprises and loans of various kinds.
- Capital Revenue
This refers to the revenue raised through royalties, sale of land, divestment proceeds and external loans.
The presiding officer at a meeting of the House or a committee.
- Committee Stage
Committee stage is where a Bill is considered line-by-line and is normally the next stage after a Bill's second reading. It is an opportunity for changes to be made to the wording or for new clauses to be added.
- Consolidated Fund
This is the primary account to which all Government revenue is deposited and from which expenditure, through warrants is withdrawn.
The specific geographic area in Jamaica that a Member of Parliament represents in the House of Representatives, also called an electoral district. During debate the Member is often identified by the name of the Electoral District rather than by his or her own name. The House of Representatives has 63 members, corresponding with the number of constituencies.
A constitution is the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it. The Jamaica Constitution, 1962 was drafted by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature in 1961-62, approved in the United Kingdom and included as the Second Schedule of the Jamaica (Constitution) Order in Council, 1962 under the West Indies Act, 1962. It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962 of the U.K. Parliament, which gave Jamaica political independence.
Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery
- Debt Service Payment
This involves the payment of principal and interest charges on loans.
- Estimates of Expenditure
This is the legal financial document which provides details on the amount of money the Government intends to spend during the fiscal year. The estimates of expenditure include allocations to the government ministries, departments and agencies.
- First Reading
First Reading is the formal introduction of a Bill to the House of Representatives or the Senate. The Bill is not debated at this stage, but a date for its Second Reading in that House is set.
- Fiscal Policy
This is the name given to the cumulative measures used by the Government to manage the National Budget and to influence macro-economic outcomes.
- Green Paper
A state document that indicates the general intent of the government in a particular subject area, and invites public comment before a law is amended or drafted. This is usually prepared by the particular Ministry or Agency dealing with the subject matter.
The daily official record of debates in the Senate and the House of Representatives. Hansard derives its name from the printer in England who began preparing reports of parliamentary debates in the 18th century.
- Illicit Enrichment
The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) defines illicit enrichment as a significant increase in the assets of a public official that he or she cannot reasonably explain in relation to his or her lawful income.
- Joint Select Committee
Joint Select Committees are committees consisting of MPs and Senators. They have similar powers to other Select Committees. They are most often set up for specific purposes, such as examining draft or existing legislation such as the NIDS bill or the Integrity Commission Act.
The Mace is an ornamented staff used in Jamaican Parliamentary ceremonies and sessions; it represents the monarch’s authority over such proceedings. It is present at every session, as Parliament is not properly constituted without it being in the room. At the start of each sitting of Parliament, the Mace is carried in by the Marshal ahead of the entry of the Presiding Officer (The Speaker of the House or the President of the Senate). The Mace is placed on the Table of the House, where it remains until it is removed at the end of each session by the Marshal.
- Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament (MP) is the person elected by those who live in a particular area (constituency) to represent them in the Lower House of Jamaica’s Parliament.
- Monetary Policy
These are the economic measures employed by the Bank of Jamaica (BOJ) to monitor interest rates and the amount of money in circulation.
Parliament is the law-making body made up of elected and appointed politicians who are responsible for making and repealing laws. In Jamaica, which is modelled on the British/Westminster system, we have a bicameral parliament consisting of a Lower House, also called the House of Representatives, comprised of 63 elected members and an Upper House, also called the Senate, comprised of 21 selected members.
- Parliamentary Counsel
The Office of the Parliamentary Counsel is the Law Office of the Government charged with the responsibility for the preparation of draft legislation. It consists of a cadre of attorneys-at-law headed by the Chief Parliamentary Counsel and supported by administrative and secretarial staff.
- Parliamentary Privilege
Parliamentary privilege grants certain legal immunities for Members of both Houses to allow them to perform their duties without interference from outside of the House. Parliamentary privilege includes freedom of speech and the right of both Houses to regulate their own affairs.
- Permanent Secretary
The Permanent Secretary (PS) is the most senior civil servant and thereby, the Chief Accounting Officer in a Ministry. As defined in Section 93 of the Constitution, he/she is responsible for the overall supervision of a Ministry, under the general direction and control of the Minister.
Procurement refers to the formal, official process of purchasing and obtaining materials, supplies, or equipment, especially in the context of business or government. Public procurement is the process by which the government buys the goods, services and works (construction) it needs to function and maximize public welfare.
When a parliamentary session comes to an end the House is prorogued until the next session begins. Prorogation is the formal end to the parliamentary year.
- Public Debt
This is the total amount of money owed by the Government.
A quorum is the minimum number of MPs or members of the Senate needed for a division (vote) to be valid or for a parliamentary committee to function. Quorums for different types of meetings are set out in the standing orders for each House.
A recess is a break during the parliamentary session (year) in which neither House of Parliament meets to conduct business. There are usually several recesses throughout a session, including Christmas and Summer.
- Recurrent Expenditure
The recurrent account contains all the expenses that accrue in the carrying-out of services normally rendered by Government. Some of these expenses include wages and salaries of Government employees, and the upkeep of offices, factories, warehouses and farms. The recurrent account also contains an estimate of the revenue expected from taxes, such as import duties, income taxes, property taxes, licences and consumption duties.
- Recurrent Revenue
This is revenue earned from taxes as well as non-tax sources such as court fines, interest earned on investments, etc.
A referendum is when a question is decided by putting it to a public vote. Referendums (also pluralised as referenda) are an example of direct democracy. Some provisions of our constitution are referred to as "entrenched"; these require a referendum (among other steps) prior to removal or modification.
- Report Stage
The Report Stage is the next stage of a Bill after its Committee Stage. The whole House, either the House of Representatives or the Senate, reviews the amended form of the bill and can make further changes.
- Royal Assent
Royal Assent is the Monarch's agreement, which is required to make a Bill that has passed both Houses of Parliament into an Act. In Jamaica, Royal Assent is provided by the Governor General, in his role as the Monarch's representative.
A Schedule is a part of a Bill or a part of an Act. Bills may have a number of Schedules that appear after the main Clauses in the text. They are often used to spell out in more detail how the provisions of the Bill are to work in practice. If a Bill becomes an Act of Parliament, its Schedules become Schedules of that Act.
- Second Reading
The Second Reading is normally the first opportunity for a Bill to be debated in either House and is the stage where the overall principles of the Bill are considered. If the Bill passes Second Reading it moves on to the Committee Stage.
A Senator is a member of the Upper House of Parliament. All 21 Senators are appointed by the Governor General – 13 on the advice of the Prime Minister and 8 on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition.
- Shadow Cabinet
The Shadow Cabinet is the team of senior spokespersons chosen by the Leader of the Opposition to mirror the Cabinet in Government. Each member of the shadow cabinet is appointed to lead on a specific policy area for their party and to question and challenge their counterpart in the Cabinet. In this way the Opposition seeks to present itself as an alternative government-in-waiting.
The Speaker is a Member of Parliament (MP) who has been elected by other MPs to act as Chair during debates in the House of Representatives. They are responsible for ensuring that the rules are observed and order is maintained in the House. When a Speaker is elected they are expected to become politically impartial.
- Standing Finance Committee
The Standing Finance Committee is a Committee consisting of all Members of Parliament, whose role, among others, is to deliberate upon the Estimates of Expenditure as presented to the Parliament. Its deliberations shall be in public.
- Standing Orders
Standing Orders are the written rules which regulate the proceedings of each House of Parliament.
Surcharge is a provision of the Financial Administration and Audit (FAA) Act, which allows for the recovery of moneys lost or recovery of the value of the loss of assets/property that have been destroyed/stolen because of negligence on the part of public officers. Surcharge allows for the recovery of the amount or value from the person(s) found being negligent.
Tabling is the act of formally putting forward a question, a motion, a report or an amendment in the House of Representatives or the Senate.
- Third Reading
Third reading is one of the stages that a Bill must pass in each House before it can become law. It is normally the final opportunity for the Upper or Lower House to decide whether to pass or reject a Bill in its entirety.
- Treasury Bills
These are short term financing instruments used to meet Government cash flow needs.
This is the written authority - over the signature of the Minister of Finance and the Financial Secretary - authorising the Accountant General to transfer money from the Consolidated Fund to any of various Government accounts.
Whips are MPs or members of the Senate appointed by each party to inform and organise their members in Parliament. One of their responsibilities is to make sure that members vote in divisions, and vote in line with party policy.
- White Paper
This sometimes follows the Green Paper, and is a report formulated by the government about a particular subject with details of planned or future laws. This is a statement of government policy on a topic of significance; typically they take the form of Cabinet submissions, prepared at the direction of a Minister for Cabinet approval.